Home Home
Sign up | Login

Highlights of YaST Development Sprint 47

December 7th, 2017 by

On the night of December 5th, teams of three are sprinting through the streets of Czech towns, visiting homes: Mikuláš (the developer), čert (the scrum master), and anděl (the product owner). If you’ve been a bad kid, you will get pieces of coal or brown potatoes. Good kids, on the other hand, will get new YaST features:

  • Performance: adapting to jemalloc, a better Ruby memory allocator
  • Replaced components: s/ntpd/chrony/g s/SUSEFirewall2/firewalld/g
  • Storage: resizing partitions, resizing RAID
  • Software modules and extensions: preselecting them, resolving dependencies automatically, creating your own installation ISO with mksusecd
  • Security related: tarballs for reproducible builds, SSH keys for root
  • AutoYaST: asking for a disk

Performance

Using Jemalloc Memory Allocator in Ruby

The MRI Ruby (the original C implementation) interpreter allows using the jemalloc library for allocating the memory instead of the usual glibc default. The advantage is better memory usage (30-40% less used memory was reported here) and it has some extra debugging features.

But after enabling this feature in Ruby in openSUSE Factory and SLE15 many YaST packages failed to build. It turned out to be an issue caused by dynamically loading the library by YaST. A workaround was to directly link the YaST against libjemalloc.

Later we found out that some packages still do not build. This time the problem was caused by a warning printed by the library on the error output. That happened only when running the old YaST test suite which still uses an embedded Ruby interpreter (normal YaST usage or the new unit tests use full Ruby which does not have this problem). The fix was just to ignore that warning when checking the error output in the tests.

If you want to check whether your Ruby uses the jemalloc feature then run this command:

ruby -r rbconfig -e "puts RbConfig::CONFIG['LIBS']"

If the output includes the -ljemalloc option then your Ruby is using the jemalloc library.

Replaced Components

Switching NTP from ntpd to chrony

It was decided that it is a good time now to switch the Network Time Protocol (NTP) implementation from ntpd to chrony as it is more secure, nicer and better. So also YaST has to adapt and modify its NTP client module to work with chrony. The module also shows its age and it is a bit hairy, so we took the opportunity to do some cleaning.

The most visible change is the UI on the running system. Please note that the UI is not final yet and it is mostly just a proof of concept. But the goals are clear: The first goal is to be really client only, as previously NTP also allowed to configure an NTP server, making the UI complex and confusing for the majority of users that just want to select a server to sync against. The second goal is to focus on the majority of users who want a simple UI to configure a common NTP client, leaving fine tuning for experts who modify configuration files directly.

In the installer, chrony is now called instead of ntpdate. This change is invisible to users and it simply works the same as previously.

We also decided to drop the command-line interface (CLI) of the NTP client module as chrony itself comes which a nice CLI chronyc. Instead of duplicating the work our CLI just suggests to use chronyc.

Please also note that changes are not finished yet and more will come. One of such changes is AutoYaST support, which is currently just skipped. But let us show you some pictures to get an idea how it will look soon in Tumbleweed and explain our decisions along the way:

The first image is from the main screen. It shows three main areas:

  1. The way the time is synchronized. It allows a pure manual run, synchronizing in a given interval or using the daemon that runs always.
  2. Configuration of sources for synchronization servers. It can be dynamic or static. For static, only the ones in the servers table (see point 3) are used. For dynamic, it also adds NTP servers from the network (like ones from DHCP). So when the user uses only public servers, the static configuration works well. But when internal NTP servers are used and they can change, then using the dynamic option makes sense.
  3. A list of synchronization servers. This specifies a statically defined list of NTP servers to sync against. You can use the familiar Add/Edit/Delete buttons.

The second image is from the Edit dialog. It was also simplified to the most common options. The Test button allows a quick check if a server is reachable and there are no typos in its address. The Quick Initial Sync option is useful to synchronize time quickly when connected to network. And Starting Offline is a nice chrony feature that allows to define the server as offline during the start-up and only when connected to the network to mark it as online and synchronize. It greatly helps with boot time and is a good option for notebooks where fast boot is important and the network is managed by Network Manager.

Firewalld will be the default firewall in SLE15 (Installer adapted)

Firewalld has some nice advantages over SuSEFirewall2: it can be dynamically managed, permits more zones, has a separation between runtime and permanent configuration options, it is well maintained, and it is already supported in some applications or libraries.

These are some of the main reasons why it has been decided to replace completely SuSEFirewall2 with firewalld.

In a past sprint report we announced that yast-firewall was adapted to support firewalld, but that was mainly an adaptation of the code to supporting both backends.

During this sprint we have completely replaced SuSEFirewall2 in the installer using a new firewalld API and although the UI seems to not have changed at all, the firewall dialogs have been completely reimplemented using CWM (our object-oriented API to YaST widgets).

During next sprints we will continue adapting the firewalld API and YaST modules to complete the replacement. The next target will be supporting firewalld in AutoYaST.

Storage

Expert Partitioner: Resizing

The Expert Partitioner has regained the ability to resize partitions. A Resize button is now available in the Hard Disks view as well as in the view of either a particular disk or a specific partition. When you try to resize a partition, a new dialog is shown with three options: maximum size, minimum size and custom size.

When the Custom Size option is selected, you have to specify manually the new partition size, but do not worry, the Expert Partitioner will prevent you from entering wrong sizes. Also, it will automatically align the partitions for a better performance.

Improvements in RAID management

As with partitions, it is now also possible to resize software RAIDs, although in the case of RAIDs resizing is a completely different operation performed by adding or removing devices to it. The partitioner will ensure you have selected the minimum amount of devices necessary for the current RAID type. Take into account that resizing a Software RAID will be only possible for new RAIDs being created, that is, resize action is not allowed when the RAID exists on disk.

As you can see in that screenshot, buttons for sorting the devices within a RAID have also been added at the right of the device list during this sprint. Those buttons are available both when creating a new RAID and when resizing it.

Last but not least, now it is also possible to work with BIOS RAIDs in the same way you do with regular disks. You will find all BIOS RAIDs in the Hard Disks section of the Expert Partitioner, where you could add or remove partition to the RAID device.

Software Modules and Extensions

The SLE15 products were split into several repositories and the installation medium contains only the minimal set of packages required to boot the system. If you want to have something more then you have to either register the system or use an additional medium.

To make that easier for users the registration module now pre-selects the recommended modules or extensions. However, if you for some reason really need a minimal system you can still deselect the pre-selected items.

The list of recommended addons is maintained at the server side (SCC) so it is possible to change that without updating the YaST installer.

Adding Modules and Extensions in AutoYaST

The list of available modules and extensions for SLE15 is already quite long as the base SLE15 products have been split into several modules. That makes adding the modules from the registration server more complicated compared to SLE12.

Originally the AutoYaST registered the addons in the XML profile exactly in the specified order. And that made troubles because SCC requires the dependent modules to be registered first. Writing the modules in the correct registration order in the profile was not easy for SLE15.

To make it easier AutoYaST now automatically reorders the modules according to their dependencies and even registers the dependent modules which are missing in the profile. Obviously that works well only if the missing module does not require a registration key.

mksusecd and linuxrc Supporting the New Media Layout

Starting with SLE15 the installation media have a slightly different layout. In short: the content file that was holding information about the product and a list of checksums is gone and has been replaced by .treeinfo and CHECKSUMS. Also, the package repository is now a repomd repository.

Also, SLE15 has been split into several so-called modules. The installation medium itself contains only a minimal set of packages. You have to register during the installation process to access other modules or use a separate medium containing them.

To save you from carrying several USB sticks around, mksusecd lets you build your own customized installation medium.

First, check what is on the media. The installation iso has just the base product:

mksusecd --list-repos SLE-15-Installer.iso
Repositories:
  SLES15 [15-0]

and you need an extra image for the modules:

# mksusecd --list-repos SLE-15-Packages.iso 
Repositories:
  Basesystem-Module [15-0]
  Desktop-Productivity-Module [15-0]
  Desktop-Applications-Module [15-0]
  Development-Tools-Module [15-0]
  HA-Module [15-0]
  HPC-Module [15-0]
  Legacy-Module [15-0]
  Public-Cloud-Module [15-0]
  SAP-Applications-Module [15-0]
  Server-Applications-Module [15-0]

Then pick the modules you want to add to the installation medium:

mksusecd --create new.iso \
  --include-repos Basesystem-Module,Legacy-Module \
  SLE-15-Installer.iso SLE-15-Packages.iso
Repositories:
  SLES15 [15-0]
  Basesystem-Module [15-0]
  Legacy-Module [15-0]
assuming repo-md sources
El-Torito legacy bootable (x86_64)
El-Torito UEFI bootable (x86_64)
building: 100%
calculating sha256...

Now use new.iso to start an installation.

Security / Development

Creating Reproducible Tarballs

We automatically submit the YaST packages from the Git repositories to the OBS projects using Jenkins. We use two Jenkins instances, the public Jenkins submits to openSUSE Factory/Tumbleweed, the internal Jenkins submits the same packages to SLE15.

The OBS compares the SLE15 packages with the openSUSE version to make sure the same packages are built in both projects. But this check compares only the file checksums, not the archive content.

The problem was that the internal and external Jenkins created a tarball with different checksum although the files inside were exactly same. If you run simple tar cfjv archive.tar.bz2 files you will find out that the tarball checksum is different for each run. So how to create a tarball in a reproducible way?

To build a reproducible tarball we use these tar options:

  • --owner=root --group=root – to make sure the file owner and the group is always the same, it does not matter who builds the tarball or who owns the files on the system
  • --mtime=<timestamp> – to have constant file time stamps, it does not matter when you downloaded the source files. Having fixed time stamps (like 0) is not a good idea as you do not know how the files are old actually, but using the current time makes the tarball not reproducible. So we use the date of the last commit in the Git repository (git show -s --format=%ci), it is stable across multiple runs and still describes how old the files are.
  • --format=gnu – use the GNU tar format, the default POSIX format contains some archive time stamps
  • --null --files-from - – this tells tar to read the file names from standard input, we use this options together with find ... -print0 | LC_ALL=C sort -z to sort the files to always have the very same file order.

Note: it also depends which compression method you use for compressing the tarball. For example gzip by default also adds some time stamps to the archive, bzip2 does not. If you want to use gzip then use the -n option.

See the tarball Rake task for the implementation details.

AutoYaST supports root SSH Authorized Keys deployment

From a security point of view, it is recommended to use SSH for logging into a remote machine instead of user and password in plain text format. But having to memorize the user and password specially if you try to use a strong non predictable password is also hard and hard to maintain.

For that reason SSH provides authentication based on public key cryptography and AutoYaST supports the deployment of SSH Authorized keys for normal users since SLE-12-SP2 but it was not working for the root user.

We have fixed this issue in SLES-12-SP3 allowing to deploy the SSH authorized keys also for the root user and exporting them into the cloned system profile.

AutoYaST keeps improving

The storage-ng based AutoYaST version has received a couple of improvements like, for instance, an improved resizing handling (supporting logical volumes) or multipath support. Additionally, we’ve squashed some bugs, like setting size=max for LVs (bsc#1070131) or some problems when not defining any partition (bsc#1070790 and bsc#1065061).

But even more interesting is the fact that we have brought back a hidden (and undocumented) feature. Did you know that if you set the <device/> element to ask, AutoYaST will ask you about which device to use for installation? Cool, right? This feature will continue working in (open)SUSE 15 and now it is documented!

Conclusion

My colleagues are telling me that practicing Scrum may be getting just ever so slightly on my nerves because I have several bugs in my description of the St. Nicholas tradition. Surely they are wrong. Stay tuned for the next report from a new and improved Scrum team: Ježíšek, Santa, und das Christkind.

Encrypted installation media

November 17th, 2017 by

Hackweek project: create encrypted installation media

  • You’re still carrying around your precious autoyast config files on an unencrypted usb stick?
  • You have a customized installation disk that could reveal lots of personal details?
  • You use ad blockers, private browser tabs, or even tor but still carry around your install or rescue disk unencrypted for everyone to see?
  • You have your personal files and an openSUSE installation tree on the same partition just because you are lazy and can’t be bothered to tidy things up?
  • A simple Linux install stick is just not geekish enough for you?

Not any longer!

mksusecd can now (well, once this pull request has been merged) create fully encrypted installation media (both UEFI and legacy BIOS bootable).

Everything (but the plain grub) is on a LUKS-encrypted partition. If you’re creating a customized boot image and add sensitive data via --boot or add an add-on repo or autoyast config or some secret driver update – this is all safe now!

You can get the latest mksusecd-1.54 already here to try it out! (Or visit software.opensuse.org and look for (at least) version 1.54 under ‘Show other versions’.

It’s as easy as

mksusecd --create crypto.img --crypto --password=xxx some_tumbleweed.iso

And then dd the image to your usb stick.

But if your Tumbleweed or SLE/Leap 15 install media are a bit old (well, as of now they are) check the ‘Crypto notes’ in mksusecd --help first! – You will need to add two extra options.

This is how the first screen looks then

Highlights of YaST Development Sprint 46

November 10th, 2017 by

It’s Hack Week time at SUSE! But before we dive into all kind of crazyinnovative experiments, let’s take a look to what we achieved during the latest development sprint.

User-friendly error messages in AutoYaST

During recent weeks, the AutoYaST version for the upcoming SLE 15 family has received quite some love regarding the integration with the new storage layer, from fixing bugs to adding some missing (and even some new) features. So let’s have a look at what we have done so far.

First of all, a new error reporting mechanism will debut in the upcoming AutoYaST version. Until now, when a problem occurred during partitioning, you got a message like “Error while configuring partitions. Try again.“. It does not help at all, right? At that point, you were on your own to find out the problem.

Now AutoYaST is able to identify and report different problems to the user in a convenient way. What is more, in many situations it is even able to point to the offending section of the AutoYaST profile.

The error reporting mechanism can distinguish between two different kind of issues: warnings and errors. When a warning is detected, a message is shown to the user but the installation will not be stopped (it honors the settings in the <reporting> section). Errors, on the other hand, will block the installation entirely.

Please, bear in mind that this error reporting mechanism is only available for the <partitioning> section. Maybe it could be extended in the future to cover other parts of the auto-installation process.

Bringing back skip lists to AutoYaST partitioning

When defining a partitioning schema, you can let AutoYaST decide which device should be used for installation. Thanks to that, you can use the same profile to install machines with, for instance, different storage devices kernel names (like /dev/sda and /dev/vda).

Needless to say that, in such a situation, we might want to influence the decision process. For example, we would like to avoid considering USB devices for installation. AutoYaST offers a feature known as skip lists which allow the user to filter out devices using properties like name, driver, size, etc.

Unfortunately, skip lists support in SLE 15 Beta1 is rather limited. But these days we have extended yast2-storage-ng to offer additional hardware information and now AutoYaST is able to use it to filter devices.

As a side effect, the ayast_probe client has been fixed to show (again) which keys you can use in your skip lists.

More on AutoYaST

Apart of adding or bringing back features, we have fixed several bugs. You can check the recent entries in the yast2-storage-ng changes file if you are interested in the details.

We know that a few features are still missing and more bugs should be addressed sooner or later, but hopefully AutoYaST must work in most use cases.

SLE15 media based upgrade for unregistered system

This sprint we also continued implementing the upgrade from SUSE Linux Enterprise (SLE) 12 products to the version 15. Particularly we solved the upgrade of unregistered systems.

In that case you need the “SLE15 Installer” medium and additionally also the “SLE 15 Packages” medium. The installer medium contains only the minimal packages for installing just a very minimal system. The rest is available either via the registration server or via the extra medium. Obviously for unregistered systems only the second option makes sense.

In this sprint we were focused on making all pieces to work together. You can see the result in the following screencast.

Upgrading an unregistered system

Fixed an installer crash in systems with 512MB RAM

We got a bug report that the beta version of the upcoming SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 15 was sometimes crashing during installation on a system with 512MB RAM. That’s bad, the 512MB is a required limit which should be enough to install a minimal system in text mode.

At first we thought that the crash was caused by insufficient memory, but the reported memory usage was OK, there was still enough free memory.

It turned out that the problem was in the pkg-bindings which tried to evaluate undefined callback function. The fix was quite simple, however, the question was why that happened only in systems with 512MB RAM and not when there was more memory.

Later we found out that the difference was caused by the extra inst-sys cleanup (mentioned in the Sprint 22 report) which YaST runs when there is low memory. In that case YaST removed the libzypp raw repository metadata cache. The assumption was that when the data is already parsed and cached in the binary solv cache the original files are not needed anymore. However, libzypp still might use some raw files later.

So we changed the inst-sys cleanup algorithm to remove only the files which we know are not needed later and keep the rest untouched.

Expert partitioner: the some boys are back in town

Several features have been brought back to the expert partitioner during this sprint.

  • Allow to create and delete logical volumes.
  • Allow to delete MD RAIDs.
  • Allow to work with multipath devices.

Now you can create logical volumes using the expert partitioner. When you go to the LVM overview or visit a specific volume group, a button for adding a logical volume is available. Clicking on it, you will be taken through a wizard for the creation of a logical volume. Note that although the logical volume type can be selected in the first wizard step, only normal volumes can be created. Thin logical volumes and thin pools will come soon. And apart of creating logical volumes, now there is also a button for deleting them.

LVM management in the reimplemented partitioner

Creating an LVM LV in the reimplemented partitioner

Deleting an LVM LV in the reimplemented partitioner

Delete action has been also implemented for MD RAIDs. For that reason, you have a delete button in the RAID overview and also when you access to a specific MD RAID. And of course, you will be asked for confirmation before removing the device.

Deleting an MD RAID in the reimplemented partitioner

Additionally, another important feature recovered during this sprint is the possibility to work with multipath devices. Now, multipaths are listed together with other disks in the tree view of the expert partitioner, allowing you to manage them as regular disks. For example, you can create or remove partitions over them. Moreover, when a multipath device is selected, a new tab is showed to list the so-called “wires” that belong to the multipath.

Multipath devices in the reimplemented partitioner

Improving the product upgrade workflow

Although the possibility to offer an upgrade option from openSUSE Leap to SLE is on both SUSE and openSUSE radars for the future, the reality is that it has been, and still is, an unsupported scenario.

But with previous versions of SUSE Linux Enterprise, you could take a SLES DVD, boot it in the Upgrade mode, and select to upgrade an openSUSE partition. YaST would let you proceed several screens before telling you that it actually will not let you upgrade from openSUSE to SLES.

Starting with recent SLE15 pre-releases, the incompatible products are filtered out in the partition selector already (overridable with a Show All Partitions checkbox), letting you know earlier whether you will be able to upgrade your system to the new SLES.

Fix of a registration issue during installation process

In SLE 15 Installer, there is a product selection dialog at the very beginning of the installation. After that, you can register the selected product but you cannot change the product later as unregistering the product and registering another one is not supported. Our awesome QA squad found out that when the installation was aborted and then started again from Linuxrc without rebooting, the installer thought that the product had been already selected and did not offer any product for installation. A little fix made it work again – now we always execute the following SUSEConnect command at the start of the installer.

SUSEConnect --cleanup

That removes all traces of previous registration attempts from the Installer. This also means that you might still want to unregister directly at SUSE Customer Center if needed.

Improving help texts in the registration process

As you have seen so far, we have been working hard to polish the registration experience in many aspects and scenarios. That also includes a better communication with the user. Thus, the help text in the registration module has been improved to also include the description of the check box states. This is especially important for the “auto selected” state which is specific to this dialog and is not used anywhere else.

The help texts in YaST use an HTML subset which allows also including images. In this case we included the check box images directly from the UI stylesheet. But in the text mode we have to use text replacement instead of the images. That means the help text content must be created dynamically depending on the current UI.

Here you can see examples of both interfaces.

The graphical version of the new registration message

Text-based version of the new registration message

Twisting the storage proposal: this time for real

In our report of sprint 42 (to be precise, in the section titled “Twisting the storage proposal”) we presented our plans to make the software proposal more customizable in a per-product basis and the draft document of the new format for control.xml that would allow release managers to define the installer behavior in that regard.

Now this goes further than a mere specification and the new format is actually being used to define the partitioning proposal of both the KVM/Xen role of SUSE Linux Enterprise 15 and the upcoming SLE15-based CaaSP.

In the following screenshot you can see the corresponding step of the guided setup for the mentioned KVM/Xen role, in which the classical controls for the /home and Swap partitions have been replaced by more goal-specific volumes defined in the section of the control file describing the role.

Partitioning configuration for the KVM/Xen role

And, as you can see below, the installer now honors those settings to propose a reasonable partition layout.

Storage proposal for the KVM/Xen role

The new format and the corresponding implementation of both the logic and the UI are flexible enough to empower the release managers to define all kind of products and to make possible for everybody to create a more customized derivative of openSUSE without renouncing to the power of the automatic proposal. See another example below (not corresponding to any product or derivative planned in the short term) with more possibilities and note how the wording was automatically adapted to talk about LVM volumes instead of partitions, based on the user choice in a previous step.

LVM-based example of the new proposal

Replacing ntpd with Chrony in yast2 ntp client

Chrony will replace the classical ntpd as default NTP client starting with SLE15 and openSUSE Leap 15. That will offer several advantages to system administrators and other users, as can be seen in this comparison. In order to make this replacement possible, we started a research to find out what is supported in Chrony and how to allow our users to configure it through YaST.

The research phase is now complete and we have already a plan to proceed with the adaptation of the existing yast2-ntp-client module. Also a few bits of code, which allows to set the NTP service during installation, are now in a feature branch (so not yet in Tumbleweed).

The next step will be a huge improvement (and simplification) of the YaST module, which will go further than adapting a list of options. In the screenshot below you can see the not yet finished prototype in action.

Configuring the keyboard in the installer via systemd

Originally the keyboard configuration was written directly by YaST in the corresponding Systemd-related configuration files. But we got a bug report that YaST should not touch the config directly and rather call the localectl tool for changing it. (See the details in the localectl man page).

However, this works only in the installed system, it does not work in the system installation as it needs a running Systemd that is not available during the installation process. Changing the setting for a not running system must be done using the systemd-firstboot command.

But this did not supported modifying the keyboard settings. Fortunately one of the SUSE developer helped us and implemented this feature to Systemd (pull request). Currently the feature is available in (open)SUSE packages but later it will be available in the upstream release for others.

Another related change was that YaST not only set the console keyboard but also constructed the keyboard settings for X11 (GUI). But this is actually a duplicated functionality, localectl itself includes this feature. So we have removed it from YaST and let the localectl tool to set both keyboard setting automatically.

And now for something completely different

Hack Week 0x10 (that is, the 16th edition) is starting just right now. Which means most developers of the YaST team will spend a week working on topics that may or may not have a direct and visible impact in our beloved users in the short term. But hey, maybe we will build a robot or a space rocket!

After that week, we will restart our Scrum activity. So if nothing goes wrong, you will have another update about the YaST development in approximately four weeks. Meanwhile, join us at Hack Week and let’s have a lot of fun together!

Highlights of YaST Development Sprint 45

October 25th, 2017 by

The wait is over: finally a new YaST team report, with news about our 45th sprint!
Our team is still focused on the development of the upcoming SUSE Linux Enterprise (SLE) 15 products family and openSUSE Leap 15, which in this sprint resulted in new dialogs to select modules and extensions, changes for the multi-product medium, and fixes for issues that have been found during our development phase. So let’s check out the most interesting things that came out of our last sprint.

New Modules/Extensions Selection

SLE has a specific dialog that allows the user to select additional modules or extensions. When we first introduced this selection dialog, the extensions could have only a single dependency, which resulted in a maximum of only two levels of dependency. During this last sprint, we implemented changes to allow a chain of dependencies. You can check on the image below this new selection dialog in action:

Reliable Self Update for Multi Product medium

Until now, the self-update URL depends on the product which is ship in the medium. However, as you may know, SLE 15 product family will be shipped in a multi-product installation medium. For that reason, sometimes self-update was failing as only a single product is defined in SCC.
Now we have fixed this issue by a defining self-update identifier that is used instead of a product name, which allows the self-update feature to work in a reliable way.

Welcome screen adapted for upgrading

Some sprints ago we announced the addition of product selection to the initial screen for LeanOS installer.

The welcome dialog is shared between different workflows like between installation and upgrading. The problem is that for upgrading we need to find the target system or root partition before selecting the product to migrate. Now it does not require any selection if there are no products to select, so it will work when upgrading. Besides that, we have polished some presentation details like the dialog title and the product selector caption.

Check out the screenshots below to see the final result:

LeanOS:

Tumbleweed:

Unavailable Packages in AutoYaST

AutoYaST needs to make sure that, after rebooting into the 2nd stage (when needed), the user can access to the installation process using the same tools that he/she used during the 1st installation stage. Apart AutoYaST packages it self, it may need to install other additional tools like VNC, SSH or the X.org system.

Unfortunately, as SLE 15 is split into modules, it’s not guaranteed that the VNC, SSH or X.org packages can be installed, which resulted in AutoYaST failing when trying to install those packages.

We have improved the package handling and now YaST displays a warning that the packages are missing and the system (and later the installer) could not be accessed as expected. However, the AutoYaST installation can still proceed although you cannot watch AutoYaST running during 2nd stage.

Improved Handling of Multi-repository Media

We got some bug reports about the new multi-repository media handling in YaST (mentioned in the sprint 43 report). Some of the problems were delegated to the underlying libzypp library, but we got our share of real YaST issues.

One of those problems was, for instance, the inconsistent styling of the MultiSelectionBox widget used in that dialog, which was pretty confusing. Fortunately, the issue has been fixed and now it looks the same than any standard checkbox widget.

More to come

The 46th sprint has already started and has many new items planned to be developed, especially for the SLE15 and openSUSE Leap 15 installer. We are looking forward to bring these planned features to life and tell you about all the details of this sprint. Meanwhile, have fun and stay tuned!

Highlights of YaST Development Sprint 44

October 11th, 2017 by

Here is the YaST team again with a new report from the trenches, this time with a small delay over the usual two weeks. Most of the team keeps focused on the development of the upcoming SUSE Linux Enterprise 15 products family, including openSUSE Leap 15. That means finishing and polishing the new storage stack, implementing the new rich ecosystem of products, modules, extensions and roles (one of the biggest highlights of the SLE15 family) and much more. So let’s dive into the most interesting bits coming out of the sprint.

Hostname configuration during installation

And let’s start with one of those stories that illustrate the complexity hidden below the user-oriented YaST surface. During installation is very common to assign a hostname to the machine being installed to identify it clearly and unequivocally in the future.

Usually it is a fixed hostname (stored in /etc/hostname) but in some circumstances is preferable to set it dynamically by DHCP. Since some time ago (as you read in a previous report and is shown in the image below) YaST allows to set the hostname selecting a concrete interface or with a system-wide variable named DHCLIENT_SET_HOSTNAME which is defined in /etc/sysconfig/network/dhcp. The value to be set for such variable during installation can be optionally read from the distribution control file. Last but not least, as you already know, Linuxrc can also be used to enforce a particular network configuration.

YaST DHCP configuration with several network interfaces

Most users have a simple setup that works flawlessly, but we recently got a bug report about a wrong network configuration after installing the system if the hostname configuration was set via Linuxrc. After some research we found that the value of DHCLIENT_SET_HOSTNAME coming from the control file was overwriting the Linuxrc configuration at the end of the installation. Now it’s fixed and the global variable will be set by the linuxrc sethostname option if provided or loaded from the control file if not. And all that happens now at the very beginning of the installation to give the user to chance to modify it and to ensure the user’s choice is respected at the end.

Setting hostname in Linuxrc

Take into account that with multiple DHCP interfaces the resulting value for DHCLIENT_SET_HOSTNAME is not fully predictable. Hence, in that scenario we recommend to explicitly select the interface which is expected/allowed to modify the hostname.

Extending the installation process via RPM packages

As we have mentioned (a couple of times) during latest reports, we are implementing multi-product support for the installer. It means that SUSE will ship several products on a single installation media.

One interesting feature is that products, modules and extensions can define its own installation roles. For instance, if you select the desktop extension, you will be able to select GNOME as system role.

During this sprint, we have improved roles definitions handling, displaying a different list of roles depending on which product was selected.

As a side effect, we added support for sorting roles assigning them a display order.

Getting Release Notes from the Installation Repository

As part of our effort to drop SUSE tags from the installation media, we improved the way in which release notes are handled during installation.

Release notes are downloaded from openSUSE or SUSE websites in order to show always the latest version. Of course, the installation media includes a copy of them, which may be outdated, to be used when there is no network connection.

From now on, instead using some additional files, this offline copy of release notes will be retrieved from the release-notes package which lives in the packages repository. So we do not need to ship additional files containing release notes in the installation media anymore.

Moreover, although the old approach worked just fine in almost all cases, there was an uncovered scenario. Let’s consider a system which have access to an updated packages repository but is not connected to Internet. That could be the case, for instance, if you are using SUSE Subscription Management Tool (SMT). With the new approach, the installer will get release notes from that repository instead of displaying the (potentially outdated) ones included in the installation media.

Additionally, we refactored and clean-up a lot of old code, improving also test coverage.

Storage reimplementation: bringing more features back

We are also working hard to make sure the brand new yast2-storage-ng includes all the features from yast2-storage, in addition to the new ones. That means that, after this 44th sprint, SLE15 is already able to perform the following operations using the new module.

  • Creating MD software RAID devices in the expert partitioner. This feature is specially relevant for many openQA tests that rely on it.
  • Displaying the compact description of the partitioning proposal in the one-click-installer screen used by SUSE CaaSP and openSUSE Kubic
  • Importing users and SSH system keys from a previous (open)SUSE installation.

One-click-installer view on SUSE CaaSP 4.0 (yast2-storage-ng)

Rethinking LVM thin provisioning

When trying to create a thin-pool using all free space the metadata has to be accounted for. In contrast to linear LVs the metadata for thin-pool uses space of the VG. For instance, if there are 2048 GiB free in the VG, the metadata for a maximal size thin-pool is about 128 MiB and the pool can be about 2047.9 GiB big.

Additionally LVM creates a spare metadata with the same size. This spare metadata is shared between all pools and thus has the size of the biggest pool metadata. The spare metadata can be deleted manually and all pool metadata can also be resized.

When starting with an empty VG it is relative easy to account for the metadata. But how to handle this with an already existing volume group? Also take into account a volume group containing e.g. RAID LVs or cache pools (which also have metadata).

We finally decided that, during probing, YaST will check how much free space the VG has and then it will calculate “reserved” value for the volume group:

reserved = total size - used by LVs the library handles - free

So when calculating available space for a normal or thin pool, it will take the “reserved” into account:

max size = total size - reserved - used by LVs the library handles

The only drawback is that the maximal size for the pool can be smaller than actually possible since e.g. the spare metadata might be shared with an already existing thin pool.

More to come

The 45th sprint has already started and you can expect more and more work in the installer for SLE15 and openSUSE Leap 15 and more news regarding the revamped storage stack. Meanwhile, don’t forget to have a lot of fun!

SUSE Support Lands Upstream In cloud-init

September 21st, 2017 by

Well it’s been many many years and many many releases that we’ve been carrying a large number of patches for the cloud-init package in openSUSE and SUSE Linux Enterprise. I remember the first semi serious implementation of SLES support happened when I worked with HP to get SLES into the HP Public Cloud offering, which was based on OpenStack. The offer was eventually named Helion Public Cloud and then eventually shut down. Yes, it’s been many many years and I have received many questions about when is SUSE support going to be upstreamed, and my answer was always, “when I get around to it“. Well, it finally happened, in big part thanks to the cloud-init summit which was held for the first time earlier this year. Google in Seattle was a great host and I very much appreciate that I was invited.

Anyway, long story short spending some face time with other contributors and working out the kinks that existed in the pipeline worked wonders.  Rather than sending a small patch here and there the main implementation for openSUSE and SLE, lots of code, were accepted shortly after the cloud-init summit and over the last couple of days another couple of patches took us another step forward.

There are a few more loose ends that need work but with 17 patches removed from the package build, currently building in Cloud:Tools:Next in OBS we’ve made major progress.

Well, I for one am happy about this, and those that want to install from source can do so and have openSUSE and SLE support working from the upstream sources and not just from the packages included with openSUSE and SLE.

Thanks to Canonical for organizing the summit to get everyone together and thanks to Google for hosting the summit.

Oh and before I forget, getting the changes accepted was not the only major step forward, openSUSE Leap 42.3 will, in the not too distant future, like in the next couple of days, be integrated into cloud-init testing using containers the lxd project builds, go figure who knew these even existed.

Highlights of YaST Development Sprint 43

September 21st, 2017 by

The summer is about to end (in Europe) and it is time for another YaST Development Sprint report. As usual, storage-ng has been one of the stars of the show, but new installer features for upcoming SUSE/openSUSE versions have received a lot of attention too. Also CaaSP 2.0 got some love from us during this sprint.

storage-ng: Udev mapping and ARM64 support

The new storage layer is getting better everyday. After the big amount of work that came with the re-implementation, the team is trying to unleash the power of the new design.

Udev Mapping is Back

The bootloader module supports using persistent device names provided by Udev. It is a pretty useful feature that comes in handy in many situations but it was missing in the storage-ng based version of the module.

But fear not: this feature has been re-implemented taking advantage of the much improved API of the new storage layer. And that’s not all: the team also took this opportunity to clean up some code and document the strategy for picking Udev device names in a proper way.

Do you want more details? Here you have them. Let’s start with the scenarios we support:

  • S1: Disk with the booting configuration is moved to different machine
  • S2: Disk dies and its content is loaded to new disk from a backup (because you have a backup, right?)
  • S3: Path to disk breaks and is moved to different one

Given these scenarios, let’s have a look at the strategies:

  • If the device has a filesystem with its mount_by, do not change it.
  • If the device names includes a by-label, just use it. This behaviour enables us to handle the three scenarios.
  • If there is by-uuid, then use it. It can also handle the three scenarios.
  • If there is by-id, use it. It can handle S3, but not always.
  • If there is by-path, just use it. It is the last supported Udev symlink and, at least, it will prevent the name changing during boot.
  • As fallback, just use the kernel name (for instance, /dev/sda3).

storage-ng now works also on ARM64

For quite some time, the storage-ng code has been tested (and worked) on x86_64, ppc64 and s390x architectures. Now, we have added aarch64 to match the list of supported architectures in SUSE Linux Enterprise and openSUSE Leap.

Speeding up the Service Manager Startup

As you may know, YaST includes a nice module for managing systemd services. Compared to systemadm, included in the system-ui package, there are some key differences:

  • It displays only services, not other unit types such as sockets.
  • It can enable/disable them for the next boot.
  • It works, as any YaST module, in textmode (even on 80×25 terminals).

Some time ago we got a report that the presented information was inaccurate in some corner cases. We fixed that but also made the module a lot slower at the same time. It did not take long for that to be reported.

We tested the following scenario: 286 services (SUSE Linux Enterprise 12 SP3 with nearly all software patterns installed) on a not very fast virtual machine. Normally, you should have fewer services and probably a faster system, but we wanted to fix the issue even for the worst scenario.

After analyzing the problem, we found out the root cause: too many calls of systemctl, at least 3 times per service (show, is-active, is-enabled). With a couple dozen milliseconds per call, it quickly adds up.

The fix was to combine all show calls into one and correctly interpreting the ActiveState property to eliminate all of the is-active calls. But you want to know the numbers, right? After the fix, the startup time went down from 69 to 15 seconds (bear in mind that it is a slow virtual machine).

So even if your system is not that slow or you have fewer services installed, you may benefit of a shorter startup time for this module.

Multi Repository Media

There are some hidden gems in YaST that are maybe not well known although they have been there for a long time. One of those features is support for multi repository media.

What actually is a multi repository medium? Imagine a CD or DVD with several independent repositories. The advantage is that, if you want to release several add-ons, you can put them all on a single DVD medium. Really nice stuff, isn’t it?

Up to now YaST added all repositories found on the medium automatically without any user interaction. In this sprint we have added a new dialog into the workflow which asks the user to select which repositories should be used. Of course, if there is only one repository, it does not make sense to ask and the repository is added automatically.

Selecting which add-ons should be installed

i18n support for CaaSP 2.0

On June 2017, SUSE released the first version of the promising SUSE CaaS (Container as a Service) Platform. The YaST team actively worked on this project by adding several new features to the installer, like the one-dialog installation screen.

That very first version of CaaSP was only available in English. However, version 2.0, which is around the corner, will support more languages. For the YaST team, it means that we needed to add the language selector to the
installer, as you can see in the screenshot below, and to mark every string in the yast2-caasp for translation.

YaST2 CaaSP features a language selector

Finally, if you are interested in CaaSP, maybe you would like to check out Kubic, its Tumbleweed based variant.

More bug fixes

Apart from the new and shiny stuff, the YaST team was able to fix quite some issues during this sprint. Let’s have a look at some of them.

Taking Care of Small Details

Not enough space for device name

Usability is a critical point for a project like YaST. From time to time, we receive a bug report about some usability problem that needs to be addressed and we took them very serious. In this case, the bootloader module had a problem when showing long device names in the dialog to change the order of disks. So we just needed to do a minor fix in order to ensure that there is enough space.

Device name is shown properly

Please, keep reporting usability related issue you find in order to make YaST even better.

Fixing the INSECURE mode

It sounds scary, but YaST supports an insecure mode during installation. What does it mean? YaST is pretty flexible when it comes to system installation. You, as a user, has the power to modify/tweak the installer (using a Driver Update Disk), add custom repositories, etc. And sometimes it can be useful to skip some checks.

Some time ago, libzypp introduced a new callback to inform about bad (or missing) GPG signatures. This callback was properly handled by AutoYaST but it was ignored in regular installations, so the user always got the warning about the failing signature, even when running on insecure mode.

Now the problem has been fixed and you can run the installer in insecure mode if you want to do so.

Learning about FCOE

YaST deals with a lot of moving parts and, although it can be daunting for the newcomer, it also has a bright side: we regularly learn new stuff to play with.

In this case, Martin Vidner, one of our engineers, had to deal with a fix related to the Fibre Channel over Ethernet support in YaST. But instead of blindly applying the patch that we already had, Martin decided to learn more about the topic sharing his findings in its own blog. Sure it will be a valuable resource to check in the future.

Highlights of YaST Development Sprint 42

September 7th, 2017 by

Kids started school in Prague, and we’re energized to bring you news from the YaST team.

This sprint we made progress in:

  • selecting one of several products to present on a DVD
  • adapting to the switch to the rpm-md package metadata format, regarding licenses and the Beta notice
  • notifying about not being able to support ReiserFS also in the case of an upgrade via AutoYaST
  • not reporting missing optional patterns

As always, the new storage stack deserves a separate section.

  • Expert partitioner has a better initial summary and it handles Btrfs subvolumes better.
  • Snapper can create and restore snapshots now.
  • A more flexible installation proposal is being developed.
  • It has landed in SLE15/Leap15 already.

Selecting the base product in the first screen

As we reported three sprints ago, YaST will support having multiple products on the same installation medium. This feature will allow to ship several SUSE products on the same DVD asking the user which one to install.

But, as an (open)SUSE user, you may know that the first screen of the installer allows you to select the language/keyboard and, additionally, it shows the product’s license. But which license should we show for multi-product media?

After asking our UX expert, we decided to allow the selection of the product in the welcome screen as you can see in the image below.

Obviously, this behavior applies only to multi-product medias. When using a single product one, the license is shown directly in the welcome screen.

Finally, as developers, we would like to highlight that we mainly re-implemented the welcome screen using modern YaST techniques (like our object-oriented API to YaST widgets), improving test coverage and code quality.

Getting licenses from repositories

In the sprint 40 report, we announced that YaST was dropping support for SUSE tags because the plan is to use RPM metadata and packages to store all that information (licenses, release notes, etc.).

During this sprint (and the previous one) we focused on improving how base product licenses are handled. Until now, licenses lived in a tarball which was included in the installation media. But that is not the case anymore: now YaST relies on (the awesome) libzypp to get products licenses directly from the repositories. There are still some rough edges: for instance, multi-language support should be improved, but we will tackle them pretty soon.

Finally, bear in mind that only base product licenses have been adapted, but we plan to do basically the same for modules, extensions and add-ons.

Updated README.BETA Support

The YaST installer supports displaying the README.BETA file from the installation medium. This file is added during Beta phase so the users know this is not the final release. This is also useful after the final product is released if you by mistake boot the old medium.

Unfortunately the original YaST code supported only the so called SUSE-Tags repository format which was used for the CD/DVD media. However, the new SUSE Linux Enterprise media will use the RPM-MD format which is something completely different.

In this sprint we have added the support for the RPM-MD format and additionally we display the Beta warning popup also in the AutoYaST installations. Of course, blocking AutoYaST with a popup would be a bad idea so in the AutoYaST mode the popup is automatically closed after a timeout. (The default is 10 seconds but can be configured in the XML profile.)

Drop support for ReiserFS autoupgrade

The drop of ReiserFS support for manual installation was announced in our last post, and now is the turn to autoupgrades.

With SUSE Linux Enterprise 15 the autoupgrade will be blocked in case of ReiserFS presence were detected suggesting a manual conversion to another filesystem.

Software proposal does not report missing optional patterns

YaST guides you through the installation process of your system making you a proposal based on the different selections like the product, addons, system role, desktop etc.

This proposal contains some software patterns that are mandatory and some that are optional but only the mandatory ones will be reported when the proposal is shown.

During this sprint we solved a bug which reported not only missing mandatory patterns but also optional ones.

The Storage Stack (storage-ng)

Storage reimplementation: Expert Partitioner

As you probably already know, in the YaST team we are rewriting our powerful expert partitioner tool from scratch to adapt it to the new storage layer. Sprint by sprint we are bringing back some of the many great features the expert partitioner offers, and this time it will not be different.

Now, when entering to the expert partitioner, all available storage devices are presented in an initial summary. Moreover, in this first screen you could find an option to rescan your devices, which allows the expert partitioner to be aware about the changes in your system, for example when you plug in a USB stick.

The management of Btrfs subvolumes was also improved during this sprint. Now, you will be alerted when a new subvolume is shadowed by an existing mount point. Moreover, some subvolumes could be automatically deleted or created when a mount point changes in the system.

Snapper can snap again

We reintroduced one of the most important features about using Btrfs: Being able to create snapshots, so you can go back to a previous state of the system if anything went wrong during a package upgrade or when you changed anything about your system configuration. This means we are now again setting up and configuring snapper correctly, installing everything into a subvolume and creating an initial snapshot when the installation is complete.

Why install into a subvolume in the first place? When snapshots are made in the future (e.g., during package upgrade or installation) and at some point you decide to roll back to one of those snapshots, you might want to delete previous snapshots to save disk space. If we didn’t install into a subvolume, the initial files would always be left over and consume disk space, so there would be a considerable resource leak.

Twisting the storage proposal

As you should know, one important part of the rewritten storage stack is the partitioning proposal. The old one was designed with a rather narrow scope in mind. Targeting desktops and old-school servers, it always proposes a root file-system, a swap volume and an optional separate /home. That’s not the most useful schema for new innovative products with a different focus like SUSE CaaS Platform, openSUSE Kubic, SUSE Manager, etc.

As we remind quite often, all the products supported by YaST (SLES, SLED, Leap, Tumbleweed, Kubic, CaaSP, SUSE Manager, SLES4SAP, you name it) share an identical installer. That installer is fully configurable using the file control.xml that is included in the media and that allows to define the sequence of installer steps, the default values and much more.

One of the goals of the new storage proposal is to give product creators and release managers more freedom and flexibility configuring the behavior of the guided setup. And for that we need a better format for control.xml, so they can express themselves with fewer limitations.

Of course, that new format is not something for the YaST team do decide on its own, but something being designed openly in collaboration with all the involved parties. To make easier for anyone to jump into the subject we have prepared this detailed document which includes all the present and historical information to understand the topic, as well as an explanation of the new format with several examples based on existing or hypothetical use cases.

As everything in YaST, that document is alive and expected to continue changing and evolving based on everybody’s feedback and contributions. So feel free to take a look and suggest improvements or future use cases we may have overlooked.

The storage stack is dead, long live the storage stack

In our previous sprint report we told you we were working to integrate the new storage stack into the future SLE15 and openSUSE Leap 15 codebase. Now the submission process is over and the preliminary images of both future distributions are fully based on libstorage-ng. For openSUSE Tumbleweed, that is the Staging:E project. That means we now have many more eyes looking into it, finding bugs, pointing what is missing and providing feedback about the new behavior. Of course, every couple of eyes comes with a little bit more of pressure for the YaST Team to get things done as soon as possible, but also with a pair of hands to help us getting there.

New blog – cyberorg.wordpress.com

August 29th, 2017 by

I have not been actively participating in openSUSE project for some time now, as a result there has not been much to blog about on openSUSE Lizards blog, there is a new blog at https://cyberorg.wordpress.com to blog about what I have been and will be up to with Li-f-e: Linux for Education project among other things. I am also now “Member Emeritus” of the openSUSE community due to lack of participation, so cyberorg@opensuse.org email address will no longer work, please use @cyberorg.info if you need to get in touch with me.

After almost a decade of bringing you Li-f-e: Linux for Education based on openSUSE, it is now based on Ubuntu MATE LTS releases. I hope to provide the same excellent user experience that you have come to expect. Download it from here. Reason for this change is mentioned in previous post and it’s discussion(lack of interest/time/skills by anyone for maintaining live installer). You can of course easily enable Education Build Service repository to install packages on standard openSUSE or use susestudio to create your own spin with Education packages.

To new beginnings…

Highlights of YaST development sprint 41

August 24th, 2017 by

We all know that everything slows down in summertime and software development is not an exception. But heat is not enough to stop the YaST team from turning the Scrum wheel and delivering the corresponding sprint reports. Let’s take a look to what we have been doing the last two weeks.

The storage reimplementation gets on the launchpad

As already anticipated in the previous report, one of the goals of this sprint was to merge the new storage stack into the codebase of SUSE Linux Enterprise 15 and openSUSE Leap 15. That implies submitting everything to Factory first and making sure the result looks harmless and good enough there. Thanks to the awesome openSUSE tools and processes, that kind of experiments can be isolated in a dedicated staging project allowing us to reach useful conclusions without risking the stability and features of Tumbleweed.

So we submitted two new source packages libstorage-ng and yast2-storage-ng to Factory, together with new versions of all the affected packages (already adapted to use the new system, instead of the old yast2-storage) and a modified version of the list of packages to be used during installation.

Everything was mixed and cooked in the Staging:E project and… guess what! We got brand new Factory ISOs with storage-ng, successfully building and verified to work by openQA, as you can see in this screenshot of the Staging Dashboard.

Storage-NG in the Staging Dashboard

Yes, we know there are two failing tests in that dashboard, but that was fully expected since those tests use the expert partitioner to configure an installation of openSUSE on top of a MD RAID system and the reimplemented partitioner still lacks some controls to configure MD RAID arrays.

The new stack will live in Factory:Staging:E (or any other staging project the Tumbleweed crew decides) for quite some time, until it’s feature-pair with the old storage layer and, thus, can progress further in its travel to Tumbleweed. But Factory was just the first stop, the ultimate goal of this sprint was getting into the preliminary versions of the next SLE and openSUSE Leap.

That second integration is taking a little bit longer because it has coincided on time with other important changes in the installer and the base system… and the fact that August is the typical European vacation period is not exactly helping to iron all the details out. But since the new storage system works for Factory, we are certain it will do it for SUSE Linux and Leap.

As readers familiar with the Tumbleweed development process may have noticed already, having all those packages in Staging:E implies that newer versions of them will only reach Tumbleweed all at once, when yast2-storage-ng is considered mature enough for that. Somehow, that will block us from delivering new features for the packages you see in the list in the mentioned image of the dashboard. But don’t worry, if something serious happens and a critical update is needed we will not let our beloved Tumbleweed users down.

But there is much more happening in YaSTland beyond the storage reimplementation. Let’s take a look to the improvements in other areas.

Installation without Grub packages

Sometimes, users have already Linux installed in their system and they do not want to install Grub in MBR again with a new Linux distribution since the installed Linux can manage the bootloader. For this case, the user may decide to not install grub packages at all in the system. However, until now the user was obligated to install this package otherwise an error message would appear, as the image below shows.

YaST2-bootloader wrongly reporting about grub2 installation

For some specific scenarios, as you may find here, even other packages are required, and when the user decided for not installing the bootloader, these packages were still required for the installation.

We changed this behavior in Tumbleweed and SLE 15, and now the users will be able to install the system without the packages that are not required, in case they decide to manage bootloader through another operational system.

But that’s not the only improvement introduced in the bootloader management during this sprint.

Improve how YaST finds disk to install Grub in MBR

In Leap 42.3 and SLE 12.3, we found out that, in some very specific cases (check the bug report for more details), YaST was not finding the correct disk to install Grub in MBR. When it happened, an error message appeared at the end of the installation, showing that Grub could not be installed in /dev/btrfs disk.

Error during bootloader installation

We improved our approach to finding the correct MBR device, by adding a specific search for the disk where the partition /boot or / (in case /boot does not exist) is located.

Such a change will be released as maintenance update and self-update, and it affects only Leap 42.3 and SLE 12.3, since SLE 15 will use the new storage layer, which does not need this double check for the correct disk.

And talking about the new storage system…

Remove support for ReiserFS

The support of new installations with ReiserFS was removed from YaST in SUSE Linux Enterprise 12 and openSUSE Leap 42 but upgrades were still supported.

With SUSE Linux Enterprise 15 and Leap 15 the support of ReiserFS will be completely removed from YaST and the installer will block the upgrade of systems formatted with ReiserFS.

If some of the entries in the /etc/fstab file of the system to be upgraded is using ReiserFS, the installer will suggest to convert them to another filesystem type before migrating the system to SUSE Linux Enterprise 15 or openSUSE Leap 15.

Preexisting /opt formatted as ReiserFS

A similar blocking error will be reported for ReiserFS root partitions.

Updating a ReiserFS root system

Another Ruby 2.4 fix

This may be interesting for Ruby developers in general. We got a bug report about crashing YaST which in the end turned out to be caused by upgrade to Ruby 2.4. The tricky part was that YaST crashed randomly and it was difficult to reproduce the problem.

It turned out that the crash happened when Ruby wanted to print a warning on the error output, which in some situations failed. We did not fix the race condition, as it likely would be too difficult to debug the Ruby internals, but we at least fixed the code to not produce the warnings anymore.

So if you are a Ruby developer take this free advise from your YaST fellows – if your code crashes randomly with Ruby 2.4 then check for the Ruby warnings first.

A heads-up about network devices names

Two sprints ago we told you about the new possibility of configuring the network with AutoYaST already in the first stage, avoiding an extra restart of the system in most cases.

During this sprint we spent some time trying to test old AutoYaST profiles (with complex network configurations) with the upcoming version of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server, using our suite of automatic AutoYaST Integration Tests. But we found some issues caused by the current architecture of our test suite that may be of interest for some of our readers.

Let’s see some technical background first.

Tumbleweed has been using ‘predictable network interface names’ for some time now and it fits most regular use cases. Inspired or following the scheme idea introduced by ‘biosdevname’, Predictable Network Interface Names was adopted in systemd/udev v197 trying to solve an historical problem with the non deterministic classic naming scheme for network interfaces (eth0, eth1, eth2 …)

Basically it will assign fixed names based on firmware, topology, and location information making them stable between system reboots, hardware additions or removals and also between kernel or drivers updates.

For the upcoming SLE15, we are giving predictable network interface names a try (they are disabled in SLE12 and openSUSE Leap 42.x). For us that turned to be a problem because our AutoYaST testsuite dynamically creates new virtual machines on every system reboot (instead of really rebooting the virtual machine created in the previous step). So from the point of view of the operating system being tested, all the network devices are replaced by new ones in every reboot and that drives the network settings nuts.

That was only our case (arguably “our fault”), but there might be other situations in which going back to the old naming scheme (with names like ‘eth0’) would be more convenient than adapting the preexisting AutoYaST profiles to the new one. In such cases you still can use the old scheme (not fully predictable but very well known by Linux veterans) by just booting the SLE15 installation with this parameters.

biosdevname=0 net.ifnames=0

Disabling predictable network names in SLE15

More to come

In addition to everything reported in this post, we have been working hard to get some new cool features to the upcoming SLE15 and to get the storage reimplementation full-featured enough to substitute the old one in all possible situations.

So, although it would still be summertime (in Europe), stay tuned for more news in two weeks.